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UN expert applauds US decision guaranteeing ‘net neutrality’

INTERNATIONAL – The United States Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) decision to establish new regulations protecting so-called net neutrality, or the equal treatment of all Internet traffic, is “a real victory” for freedom of expression and access to information, a United Nations human rights expert said on February 27.

“I hope the new rules may serve as a model for other governments seeking to protect or expand an open and secure Internet,” the Special Rapporteur on freedom of expression, David Kaye, explained in anews release.

“It is especially important that the new rules prevent ISPs [internet service providers] from discriminating against some types of content in favour of others, either by slowing down delivery speeds or by creating a fast lane to ensure quicker delivery for only some content providers that have paid extra fees.”

With the FCC decision, the United States (US) joins a small number of countries – Brazil, Chile, and the Netherlands – that have adopted net neutrality rules in an effort to support “a free and open” Internet and ensure continued access to any lawful content individuals choose, “without restriction or interference from ISPs.

In addition, the decision classifies broadband Internet as a public utility, permitting its regulation by the FCC similar to the way the agency regulates telephone service and other utilities.

Net neutrality’s importance has been long debated by law and technology experts. In instances where it is not applied, ISPs may, at their own initiative or through governmental pressure, charge fees when granting speedier traffic to websites or discriminate against particular content by slowing down or blocking access to certain websites.

“It was by no means assured that the FCC would adopt these rules after years of consideration and public comment,” Mr. Kaye continued, as he urged all States to revisit their own Internet policies and consider similar action in guaranteeing net neutrality to their citizens.

“Moving forward, I hope that implementation of the rules will be marked by the same openness that led to the rules themselves.”

Independent experts or special rapporteurs are appointed by the Geneva-based Human Rights Council to examine and report back on a country situation or a specific human rights theme. The positions are honorary and the experts are not UN staff, nor are they paid for their work.

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UN-backed treaty marks 10 years of dramatic change in tobacco use worldwide

INTERNATIONAL – A World Health Organization-led treaty that aims to achieve a tobacco-free world has dramatically curbed tobacco use worldwide since its entry into force 10 years ago on 27, February, but “the war on tobacco is far from over” with the tobacco industry still spending billions to promote products that are expected to kill some 8 million people each year by 2030, the United Nations health agency said.

The WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) entered into force on February 27, 2005, enacting a set of universal standards stating the dangers of tobacco and limiting its use in all forms worldwide.

The treaty is the first international treaty negotiated under the WHO’s auspices, and has become one of the fastest endorsed by the United Nations to date, with 180 Parties, covering 90 per cent of the world’s population.

“The WHO Framework Convention stands out as the single most powerful preventive instrument available to public health,” says WHO Director-General Dr. Margaret Chan. “We know it works.”

“It averts addiction to a deadly product," Dr. Chan went on to say. "It saves lives. Implementation of its provisions brings both an immediate and longer-term reduction in diseases and premature deaths. Increasingly fierce opposition from the tobacco industry is further evidence of how well this treaty works.

During the past decade, the treaty has enabled countries worldwide to make many significant achievements in tobacco control, including the following:

  80 per cent of countries have boosted tobacco control legislation since becoming Parties;

  The cost of a packet of cigarettes has, on average, increased by 150 per cent among Parties;

  There has been an increase in use of graphic health warnings – such warnings cover 75–85 per cent of cigarette packages in many countries and plain packaging initiatives are increasing;

  Many countries have banned smoking in indoor and outdoor public spaces, which has helped to ensure that smoking is no longer seen as socially acceptable;

  Some Parties have set the explicit goal of becoming “tobacco free” (with less than 5 per cent prevalence of tobacco use), including Finland, Ireland and New Zealand, and the Pacific Island countries.

“However, the fight against tobacco is far from over,” said a press release announcing the anniversary.

Tobacco companies are still spending billions on advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products, according to WHO. In addition they are also challenging the treaty’s implementation as well as tobacco control laws at national and international courts, and through trade and investment agreements.

Dr. Vera Luiza da Costa e Silva, Head of the Convention Secretariat, has said: “We still expect 8 million people to be dying each year by 2030 – because they have smoked tobacco or have been exposed to second hand smoke.”

“The use of alternative products such as water pipes, smokeless tobacco and electronic nicotine delivery systems are gaining in popularity and will need to be addressed through tobacco control measures,” she said. “The illicit tobacco market still counts for 1 in every 10 cigarettes consumed globally.”

According to WHO, the illicit tobacco trade is driven by numerous players, ranging from criminal networks to the tobacco industry.

“To counter the tobacco lobby’s influence, we must stand together against this insidious industry,” Dr. da Costa e Silva was quoted as saying. “We must fight to save the 6 million lives lost each year to tobacco. On this 10th anniversary of the WHO FCTC, we must recommit to further reducing tobacco use because a tobacco-free world is in our reach.”

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Amid uptick in Ebola cases, WHO cites challenges in reaching affected communities

INTERNATIONAL – New cases of Ebola rose again in Guinea and transmission remains widespread in Sierra Leone, the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) reported as it and the UN Ebola response mission both raised concerns about challenges in engaging communities to win the fight against the disease.

Both WHO and UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) also noted unsafe burials of those who died from the disease posed as a challenge and that “a significant number” of individuals are still either unable or reluctant to seek treatment for Ebola, which has affected over 23,500 people and killed more than 9,500 mainly in the Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.

In its latest update issued Wednesday afternoon, WHO reported that new cases in Guinea continued to arise from “unknown chains of transmission” and that transmission remained “widespread in Sierra Leone” but transmission continued at very low levels in Liberia, with 1 new confirmed case reported in the 7 days to 22 February associated with a known chain of transmission.

“Engaging effectively with communities remains a challenge in several geographical areas,” WHO said in its most recentupdateNearly one-third of prefectures in Guinea reported at least one security incident in the week to 22 February, often as a result of rumours and misinformation linking response efforts with the spread of EVD [Ebola Virus Disease], according to WHO.

The Secretary-General’s Special Envoy on Ebola, Dr. David Nabarro, last week told the UN General Assembly that the final phase of “getting to zero” cases may well be the hardest, saying the hunt to track down the virus is “like looking for needles in haystacks.”

Dr. Nabarro told reports that having strong surveillance capabilities on the ground to identify people with Ebola, to confirm diagnosis, to quickly arrangement arrange effective treatment, to identify people that are their contacts and to keep those people under review for 21 days “is a really difficult task.” UNMEER also reported today that border between Guinea and Liberia reopened to the public on Wednesday after months of closure.

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World health agency calls for widespread vaccination as measles resurfaces in Europe

INTERNATIONAL – European policymakers, healthcare workers, and parents must step up their efforts to vaccinate children against measles amid an ongoing outbreak across the continent, the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) said today, warning that a recent resurgence in the disease threatened Europe’s goal of eliminating measles by the end of 2015.

According to UN data, over 22,000 cases of the virus have surfaced across Europe during the 2014 to 2015 biennium with the outbreak spreading to seven countries. This comes despite a 50 per cent drop from 2013 to 2014.

“When we consider that over the past two decades we have seen a reduction of 96 per cent in the number of measles cases in the European region, and that we are just a step away from eliminating the disease, we are taken aback by these numbers,” Dr. Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe, affirmed in apress release.

“We must collectively respond, without further delay, to close immunization gaps. It is unacceptable that, after the last 50 years’ efforts to make safe and effective vaccines available, measles continues to cost lives, money and time,” she added.

The WHO announcement comes amid a continuing measles outbreak in the United States and stalled progress in eradicating the virus in the Eastern Mediterranean region, where weak health systems, conflict and population displacement have hampered vaccination efforts.

According to WHO’s fact sheet on measles, the disease’s outbreaks can be particularly deadly in countries experiencing or recovering from a natural disaster or conflict. Damage to health infrastructure and health services interrupts routine immunization, and overcrowding in residential camps greatly increases the risk of infection.

WHO said that impressive gains had been made towards measles elimination in recent years and an estimated 15.6 million deaths were prevented through vaccination during 2000-2013 but the huge reductions in mortality are tapering off.

As for the 2014-2015 outbreaks, who lists the affected countries and number of cases as: Kyrgyzstan (7,477); Bosnia and Herzegovina (5,340); Russia (3,247); Georgia (3,291); Italy (1,674); Germany (583); and Kazakhstan (537).

Europe’s outbreaks, including the current one, are continuing to occur due to pockets of susceptible un- or under-immunized people, particularly as growing numbers of parents either refuse to vaccinate their children or face barriers in accessing vaccination.

In their press release, the WHO urged an improvement in surveillance to detect and investigate all suspected cases; the rapid testing of cases and the identification of chains of transmission; and making “high-quality evidence” readily available.

“The priority is now to control current outbreaks in all affected countries through immunization activities targeting people at risk,” concluded Dr. Nedret Emiroglu, Deputy Director of the Division of Communicable Diseases, Health Security and Environment at the WHO Regional Office for Europe.

“At the same time, all countries, with no exception, need to keep a very high coverage of regular measles vaccination, so that similar outbreaks won’t happen again in our Region, and measles can be eliminated once and for all.”

The fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) aims to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Recognizing the potential of measles vaccination to reduce child mortality, and given that measles vaccination coverage can be considered a marker of access to child health services, routine measles vaccination coverage has been selected as an indicator of progress towards achieving that target.

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Meeting about Junior, Grand Carnival parade on Friday

PHILIPSBURG - All troupes’ leaders, individuals, float builders and other persons with intentions of being in the Grand Carnival Parade and Labor Day Parade are invited to an informative meeting on Friday, February 27 at 7:00pm.

The meeting is being hosted by the St. Maarten Carnival Development Foundation (SCDF) and will be held at the Government Administration Building. The meeting about the parade is part of SCDF’s annual meetings with all stakeholders of Carnival.

The foundation said it is “hearing” from different corners about troupes and floats and the like that will be in the parade, but has to confirm this to ensure proper planning. “What happens sometimes is people don’t realise that they have to register to take part in the parade. So they just show up on parade days,” the SCDF said.

“We are excited to hear that so many, new people and troupes want to form part of the parade but we need to speak to these persons directly and outline regulations. The meeting is for both the junior and senior parade sections,” SCDF concluded. (SCDF)

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New studies show ‘significant breakthrough’ in HIV prevention, says UN agency combating virus

SINT MAARTEN/INTERNATIONAL – The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle.

At the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), the results of two separate studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medicines showed 86 per cent efficacy in preventing new HIV infections among men who have sex with men.

A third study showed that in so-called serodiscordant couples – where one partner has HIV and the other does not – access to PrEP for the HIV-negative person combined with access to antiretroviral therapy for the HIV-positive person was 96 per cent effective in preventing new infections.

“These new results are a significant breakthrough in advancing efforts to provide effective HIV prevention options to men who have sex with men and to serodiscordant couples,” said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. “The results are timely and important and will advance global efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.”

A study in the United Kingdom, involving 500 men who have sex with men at higher risk of HIV infection, found that those taking a daily pill of the medicines tenofovir and emtricitabine were 86 per cent less likely to become infected with HIV than those involved in the study not taking the medicines. The same effect was found in a similar study conducted in France and Canada, where participants took four tablets of tenofovir and emtricitabine, two before and two after sexual intercourse.

In both studies, the trials were modified to offer active antiretroviral medicines to all participants after interim analysis of the data showed a significantly positive effect.

In another study, conducted in Kenya and Uganda, PrEP was used on the HIV-negative partner, while antiretrovirals were used on the HIV-positive partner. The results, which showed that the combination produced 96 per cent efficacy, suggest that PrEP could be a highly effective “bridge” treatment to reduce new infections in the period between when a HIV-positive person begins treatment and when their risk of transmitting the virus reduces.

A fourth study, in South Africa, was less successful. While the trial, which involved women at higher risk of HIV infection using a one per cent tenofovir vaginal gel, showed disappointing results, the study still provided valuable information about the urgent need to find new and effective HIV prevention options that work for young women.

UNAIDS, which unites the efforts of 11 UN organizations – UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, UN Women, ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank – and works closely with global and national partners towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, congratulated all the researchers on completing their studies and welcomed the “highly effective additional HIV prevention option” offered by PrEP.

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In West Africa, improved fish drying technique launched to save lives and environment

INTERNATIONAL – A newly developed fish drying technology is improving food quality and saving lives in West Africa, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) announced Tuesday, 24 February, as it launched its effort to boost food safety and working conditions across the region.

With smoked fish remaining a staple food product and vital source of income for many African coastal communities, the innovativeFAO-Thiaroye Processing Technique, otherwise known as FTT and pioneered by the UN agency, will now seek to transform the kiln-drying method traditionally used for smoking fish into a healthier and more environmentally friendly process.

“Traditional smoking techniques often involve a massive burning of wood which leads to a variety of problems,” Yvette Diei-Ouadi, a fishery industry expert at FAO,explainedin a press release.

“For one, an exorbitant amount of CO2is produced, so the kilns produce more greenhouse gas pollution than they should. Also, traditional smoking releases contaminants known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic and hazardous to the human respiratory system.”

Smoked fish accounts for a large part of the West African diet. In Côte d'Ivoire, where the FTT is being rolled out, an estimated 20 to 30 per cent of local marine and freshwater catch is consumed in smoked form. Throughout the region, smoked fish is generally preferred by locals for its taste, nutritional benefits, competitive prices and long shelf-life, which ranges from three to 6 months.

Nonetheless, traditional smoking techniques also leave high amounts of tar particles on the smoked fish, affecting taste and quality and occasionally making it much more difficult to sell.

As a result, the new FTT technology permits users to easily upgrade their traditional ovens while slashing the amount of carcinogenic contaminants and residue produced during smoking. At the same time, the technology also reduces the amount of fuel needed and provides a load capacity five times greater than traditional barrel ovens.

“This is a system developed to address many aspects of fish smoking operations,” said Ndiaye Oumoulkhaïry, a member of the FTT design team. “In the first place stands the safety aspect - to secure consumers' health and meet international food standards. Then there's reducing post-harvest losses, and also curbing the drudgery of fish processors who are now least exposed to the heat and smoke.”

In Ivorian fishing village of Abobodoumé, the FTT technique is already proving to be a success, according to the FAO, which noted that female fish processors “took immediate liking to the new FTT additions,” including a collection plate which traps dripping fish oils they can re-use for manufacturing soap or as cooking oil.

The new technology is also proving popular in other African fishing nations and its use is starting to spread in Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Tanzania and Ghana.

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Central African Republic: surge in violence triggers new displacement, including into DR Congo

INTERNATIONAL – An upsurge in violence in the Central African Republic (CAR) has triggered fresh displacement inside the country and across the border into the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the United Nations refugee agency said on Tuesday, February 24.

Briefing the press in Geneva this afternoon, Karin de Gruijl, Spokesperson for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) said that since January, an estimated 30,000 people have fled their homes and found refuge in other parts of the CAR.

Much of the recent violence in the besieged country has been associated with seasonal movements of livestock and clashes between herders and the local and agricultural populations and the anti-Balaka, Ms. de Gruijil said. Some herders have turned to ex-Seleka militias for protection. Civilian populations have been caught in the middle and their villages, houses and belongings have been burned down.

UNHCR has distributed relief items including blankets, jerry cans, kitchen sets and plastic sheeting to more than 1,170 recently displaced families in the CAR town of Bambari. In Batangafo, 800 families have received these emergency kits. However, the security situation there remains precarious.

“Armed elements enter some of the sites for displaced people in Bambari and Batangafo, threatening people and extorting money. Some of the displaced live just meters away from their former homes, yet they cannot go back for fear of losing their lives,” said Ms. de Gruijl.

“While most of the local authorities are absent, many public buildings in Bambari are controlled by ex-Seleka forces. More robust police and gendarmerie presence is urgently needed to protect civilians and to prevent further killings and acts of retaliation,” she added.

Across the border, in the DRC, UNHCR has registered more than 19,000 refugees who have arrived in Bosobolo territory in the north of Equateur Province as a result of new violence since December in CAR's Kouango district, in Ouaka Prefecture.

“Our teams on the ground report the ongoing arrival of refugees who tell us that they flee clashes between the anti-Balaka and ex-Seleka militias in their villages. They say that their houses are being burned and they have no other choice than to flee. If they stay in their villages, they risk being tortured or killed and women are being raped,” the UNHCR spokesperson said.

Some 2,400 refugees have crossed into the DRC, using new entry points in the territories of Mobayi and Bosobolo since 15 February. Most are children.

UNHCR and its partners are on the ground to set up a new refugee site in the area of Bili, away from the border. Newly arrived refugees currently live in spontaneous settlements on the shore of the Oubangui River, the natural border between the DRC and CAR, in makeshift shelters with very limited access to health care, clean water and food.

UNHCR's team has also received alarming reports of sexual violence by armed elements from CAR. “On 9 February, three refugee girls were kidnapped by armed elements who crossed into the DRC close to Dula and took them back to the Central African Republic. One girl who managed to escape told us that they were raped. She is now receiving medical treatment. The other girls are still missing,” Ms. de Gruijl said.

In total more than 893,000 people have been forcibly displaced by violence in the Central African Republic. Some 442,000 are displaced inside the country, including more than 50,000 in Bangui, some 35,000 people who fled to Bambari and 33,700 in Batangafo. Some 451,000 are living in exile, mainly in Cameroon (245,000), Chad (94,000), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (88,000) and the Republic of the Congo (24,000).

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2015 pivotal for finalizing universal climate change agreement

INTERNATIONAL – This year is pivotal for global action on climate change, United Nations Secretary-GeneralBan Ki-moon said on February 23 in New York, emphasising that all the major advances of 2014 have set the stage for success in 2015.

“Our challenge now is clear: to finalize a meaningful, universal agreement on climate change,” Mr. BantoldMember States at a briefing on relevant progress as momentum builds towards a meeting to be held in Paris this December, when leaders are expected to reach a landmark treaty.

“Addressing climate change is essential for realizing sustainable development. If we fail to adequately address climate change, we will be unable to build a world that supports a life of dignity for all,” the Secretary-General warned.

Joining Mr. Ban at the briefing was President of the UN General Assembly, Sam Kutesa, as well as the Permanent Representatives of Peru and France, who organized the gathering.

Today's briefing follows the 20th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), held in Lima, last December where Member States reached the “Lima Call for Climate Action”, paving the way for a new, ambitious and universally-binding climate agreement to be adopted in Paris (COP21) this December.

Talks in Lima are also said to have contributed to furthering negotiations during last week's Geneva Climate Change Conference, where Parties also delivered a comprehensive and balanced text.

“Recent months have seen strong progress on climate change. At the Climate Summit I convened last September, I said we needed 'all hands on deck.' I am pleased to say that this is indeed what happened: Governments, along with leaders of finance, business and civil society, came together to announce significant new actions that can reduce emissions and strengthen resilience,” said Mr. Ban.

The Secretary-General's September Summit also catalysed “much-needed momentum” on climate finance. Public and private sector leaders pledged to mobilize over $200 billion by the end of 2015 to finance low-carbon, climate-resilient growth. And in Lima, in December, Parties built on earlier announcements by the European Union, China and the United States to reduce their emissions. They also launched the Lima Paris Action Agenda and pledged the $10 billion needed for the initial capitalization of the Green Climate Fund.

The Secretary-General underscored that 2015 is particularly crucial for several landmark meetings: COP21 in Paris in December to adopt a universal text on climate change; UN special summit in September to adopt a global development agenda; financing for development conference in July in Addis Ababa, to renew commitment to global development; and next month's gathering in Sendai, Japan, to strengthen framework on disaster risk reduction.

To that end, Mr. Ban urged all pledging countries to deliver their contributions as soon as possible. “Climate finance is critical, not only for catalysing action, but for building the political trust needed to reach a universal agreement in Paris,” he said, emphasizing that developed countries need to set out a clear trajectory for achieving the goal of mobilizing $100 billion per year by 2020. And resilience must be strengthened, especially in the small island states and least developed countries.

“We have no time to waste, and much to gain by moving quickly down a lower-carbon pathway. All countries must be part of the solution if we are to stay below the 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise threshold,” the Secretary-General said.

Also deliveringremarkstoday, Assembly President Kutesa called on Member States to build on the “constructive spirit” that prevailed in Lima and Geneva to reach consensus on both the content and the legal nature of the final agreement.

“To successfully reach this objective, strong and sustained political will is of vital necessity,” he added, reiterating that climate change is one of the key priorities of his 69th General Assembly: a session which is striving to shape the post-2015 development agenda, financing for development, as well as a new global framework on disaster reduction.

Negotiations for all these pertinent issues must be “mutually reinforcing,” Mr. Kutesa explained, noting that his high-level event on climate change to be held on 29 June is an opportunity to ensure the necessary focus and momentum are maintained. “I encourage Member States to participate in this event at the highest political level to convey a strong message on the critical importance of the negotiation process.”

The international community must demonstrate its commitment toward delivering a final agreement in Paris that improves lives, promotes achievement of sustainable development, protects the environment and preserves our planet's integrity, he added.

“As we make the final push toward Paris, it is abundantly clear that expectations are high. The world is watching with great anticipation to see how we respond to this historic opportunity to shape the future of our planet,” Mr. Kutesa emphasized.

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World Health agency urges global switch by 2020 to ‘smart’ syringes that disable after single use

INTERNATIONAL – The United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) on February 23 called for all countries to switch by 2020 to new ‘smart’ syringes that cannot be used more than once as an “absolutely critical” stop to protect millions of people from deadly infections acquired through unsafe injections.

“Adoption of safety-engineered syringes is absolutely critical to protecting people worldwide from becoming infected with HIV, hepatitis and other diseases. This should be an urgent priority for all countries,” Dr. Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of the WHO HIV/AIDS Department, said in theannouncementby the UN health agency.

A 2014 study sponsored by WHO, which focused on the most recent available data, estimated that in 2010, up to 1.7 million people were infected with hepatitis B virus, up to 315,000 with hepatitis C virus and as many as 33,800 with HIV through an unsafe injection.

“The new ‘smart’ syringes WHO recommends for injections into the muscle or skin, have features that prevent re-use,” according to the announcement. “Some models include a weak spot in the plunger that causes it to break if the user attempts to pull back on the plunger after the injection. Others have a metal clip that blocks the plunger so it cannot be moved back, while in others the needle retracts into the syringe barrel at the end of the injection.”

The new WHOinjection safety guidelineswith support from the IKEA Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, also provided recommendations highlighting the value of safety features for syringes, including devices that protect health workers.

“Syringes are also being engineered with features to protect health workers from ‘needle stick’ injuries and resulting infections,” WHO said. “A sheath or hood slides over the needle after the injection is completed to protect the user from being injured accidentally by the needle and potentially exposed to an infection.”

WHO said it is urging countries to transition, by 2020, to the exclusive use of the new “smart” syringes, except in a few circumstances in which a syringe that blocks after a single use would interfere with the procedure.

Syringes without safety features currently cost 3 to 4 cents when procured by a UN agency for a developing country and the new smart syringes cost at least twice that much, but WHO said it is calling on donors to support the transition, anticipating that prices will decline over time.

Noting that injections are one of the most common health-care procedures used around the world, WHO stressed the need to reduce the number of unnecessary injections as a critical way of reducing risk.

“There are 16 billion injections administered every year” but only some 5 per cent of these injections are for immunizing children and adults, and 5 per cent are for other procedures like blood transfusions and injectable contraceptives,” the WHO press release said.

The remaining 90 per cent of injections are given to administer medicines, according to WHO.

Finally, WHO said “unsafe injection practices would logically impact on other blood borne diseases transmitted through the reuse of injection equipment e.g. haemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, malaria, and others.”

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