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Dr. Nilda Arduin: Consider this: Doing the math (1)

SINT MAARTEN (PHILIPSBURG) - (This article is the first in a series of essays written by Dr. Nilda Arduin to commemorate 1 July 1863, the Abolition of slavery within the Dutch Kingdom) - July 2022 

Within an atmosphere of visible racism internationally and strained relations within the Dutch Kingdom, I continue to ponder on the origin of the contentions among the partners within the realm. Doing the math, I realize that on both sides of the ocean we - the descendants of the enslaved Africans and the descendants of the imperial masters/the colonists - fail to acknowledge and have open discussions about the remnants of our shared history, which after all is not as distant as we pretend it to be.

Considering that my sister’s five grandchildren all had the privilege to sit on my mother’s lap, their great-grandmother, I realize that even if I was privileged enough to be born before my great-grandparents transitioned, I most probably would not have been able to enjoy the same privilege. They were all born before 1863 when Suriname and Curaçao (and its dependencies) were still subject to slavery. Even my grandparents were born just a few years after the abolition of slavery. Have you ever done this math within your family?

Considering myself a victor, descendant of the strongest among the strong, who survived slavery, I do not ignore the trauma, stigma and deprivation many of the people that look like me in the West had and still have to endure. Refusing to embrace the victim role, I however consider it high time to widely and honestly discuss the stigma, which turned us against ourselves. Inviting the descendants of the imperial masters to join the conversation is a must. It is important to look each other in the eyes, while discussing the consequences of divide and conquer still visible and alive today.

We need to understand that defining ourselves among each other by color codes ranging from lighter shades of being ‘colored’ to the darkest shades of coffee and mahogany is an invention designed and structurally maintained by the imperial masters, to keep the diaspora African (as a race) divided. Honest and open discussions of institutionalized racism since the “Willy Lynch” letter of 1712 (hence the well-known term ‘lynching’) should provide both Afro-Caribbean and Caucasian people insight and awareness concerning the brutal and inhumane psychology behind the Transatlantic slave trade. Concepts which I am sure many fellow citizens in the European part of the Dutch Kingdom have never heard of, and are certainly not aware of their impact on today’s institutions and societies. Recognizing and addressing systemic structural flaws, which became the norm, require mindfulness. Avoiding such conversations by brushing them off as being the past, I remind the reader that the Jewish Passover is commemorated yearly for over 3000 years to celebrate the Hebrews' liberation from slavery in Egypt.

It is time that we look at ourselves and acknowledge the traumas supported and inflicted upon our own with references to our sisters and brothers with a darker complexion as ‘tar babies’, and subsequent favoring those among us with lighter skin. This too is a remnant of our collective dark history and considered the norm in our societies without further questioning. Breaking the silence and have these conversations openly is required to travel the path of rediscovery, recovery and healing. A path certainly not meant to dwell in the past and stay there, but to enable understanding and meaningful cooperation as we move forward within the realm.

Do the math and note that compared to approximately three hundred years of Transatlantic slave trade, anno 2022 barely marks half the time that all citizens in the Caribbean part of the Dutch Kingdom are free since the Abolition of slavery in 1863. Though equal citizenship with voting rights for the Afro-Dutch only exists since 1948 in the Caribbean part of the Kingdom. To consider discussions surrounding slavery and its consequences in our times a ‘Black thing’ is therefore a gross misconception, which only perpetuates racial discrimination and conflicts within the realm.

Considering that a European Dutch citizen is able to trace his or her roots far back to most probably the Middle Ages and beyond, while the Afro-Dutch citizen - the baby boomers-, can hardly identify his or her great-grandparents by name, should tell that the shared history within the Dutch Kingdom is not as far as we pretend.

Consider the following actions and discussion points:

  • Have we sufficiently heeded and acted upon the lyrics of the Redemption Song by Bob Marley, a repetition of the call issued by Marcus Garvey in the 1930’s to emancipate ourselves from mental slavery?
  • Invite some friends to watch a few documentaries about contemporary slave trade. Subsequently, identify and discuss ways to deal with the socio-economic and psychological impact of the Transatlantic slave trade on our societies today. This included not only free labor, but huge profits for the imperial home countries.

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Murder investigation launched into death of 86-Year-Old woman

SINT MAARTEN (PHILIPSBURG) - The Police Force of Sint Maarten KPSM and the Prosecutor’s Office OM SXM have launched a murder investigation into the death of the octogenarian who died on 29 May 2022 after armed robbers invaded her Pointe Blanche home. The robbers also assaulted and injured the woman’s husband.

The “Pharao” investigation into the initial break-in and assault, took a turn to murder after the autopsy findings revealed that L.M. (86) died an unnatural death.

Prosecutor’s office (OM) and Police Force of Sint Maarten (KPSM) encourage anyone with information about the brutal and fatal attack on the two 80-plus-year-olds in their home before dawn to come forward in the pursuit of justice.

Anyone who may have information about this fatal incident is urged to contact the Police Force on +1 721 542 2222 ext. 204 or 205 or the free anonymous tip line 9300. You can also visit www.policesxm.sx to report crimes anonymously via the tip contact form or leave a private message via Facebook: Police Force of Sint Maarten - Korps Politie Sint Maarten. (KPSM)

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CAft: Debt sustainability Aruba now asks for action

ARUBA (ORANJESTAD) - The economy of Aruba is recovering well. In the months of April and May, tourism has surpassed the pre-corona level of 2019. Aruba has to utilize this period of recovery to put the budget in order.

It is necessary that Aruba follows the recommendations the CAft made with regard to the adopted 2022 budget, limit the deficit in 2022 and achieve a surplus of 1 percent of GDP on its budget as of 2023. Reducing the government debt of AWG 5.9 billion (about 104% of GDP) to an acceptable level remains an important issue. In addition, reforms need to be implemented to safeguard the social security system for future generations. 

The multi-year picture, as presented in the adopted 2022 budget, shows that there will be deficits up to and including 2026. As a result, the nominal national debt will increase further in the coming years. Interest rates are now rising, and significant refinancing is underway.

It is essential that Aruba reduces its deficits because otherwise the interest charges could become unmanageable. The CAft has made recommendations that should lead to a reduction of the financing deficit this year and a surplus of 1% of GDP as of next year. The sustainability of the Aruban debt also makes this necessary.

2022 and 2023 budget

As of April 2022, tourism has surpassed the pre-corona level. With this rapid recovery of tourism, the economy is also expanding. According to the latest insights, the economy grew by 17.2 percent last year. Notwithstanding, the 2022 budget is showing a deficit of AWG 236 million for the public sector (4.2 percent of GDP).

The CAft has made recommendations for the 2022 budget, which mainly concern expenditure control. For example, the costs for goods and services in the budget will increase by 22 percent compared to the pre-corona years, while the need for this excessive increase in costs is insufficiently justified.

Personnel costs and the country’s contributions to government-owned companies also increase unnecessarily. The recommendations of the CAft have not yet been followed, which means that for now the deficit this year is unnecessarily high. 

Tax reform

A tax reform will be implemented as of 2023, of which the introduction of a VAT (BTW) is an important part. The tax benefits arising from this reform have not yet been sufficiently clarified in the budget.

This makes it impossible to establish the reality level of the tax benefits. It should be noted that the legislative process for the introduction has not yet started. Failure to meet the intended implementation date, January 1st, 2023, will therefore affect the financing balance in 2023. 

Social security and health care

Reforms in the social security and health care are necessary to ensure the sustainability of the system for future generations.

The resulting savings of AWG 60 million are a first step towards sustainable care and should ensure that the country does not have to make a contribution in the short term to compensate the deficits in the AZV.

Because the introduction of a personal contribution and the austerity of the positive list of medicines and bandages have not yet been formalized, Aruba does not expect to achieve the pursued saving of AWG 60 million in 2022.

It is very important that these measures be implemented in the short term. A delay in the implementation of these measures leads to savings losses. In the absence of compensation for these savings losses, the result of the AZV will be negatively affected, as well as the financing balance of the country, should a national contribution be required to compensate the deficit in the AZV.

Financial management

The financial management and accountability cycle of Aruba are not in order. The preparation of the 2019 and 2020 annual accounts has been further delayed, causing a considerable backlog. These delays are due to deficiencies in the financial management. 

The CAft visited Aruba on June 23 and 24 and held talks with the Governor, the Minister of Finance and Culture, the Council of Ministers and the Committee on Finance, Government Organization, Culture and Sport of Parliament. The CAft also spoke with the management of the Social Insurance Bank (SVb), the General Audit Chamber (ARA) and the Dr. Horacio E. Oduber Hospital (HOH).

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Sint Maarten to Host Third Ministerial Forum on School Safety in the Caribbean

SINT MAARTEN (GREAT BAY, DCOMM) - The Ministry of Education, Culture, Youth and Sport (MECYS) will be hosting the Third Caribbean Safe School Initiative (CSSI) Ministerial Forum from June 28 – 30, 2022.

This event was originally planned for 2021, but due to developments related to the COVID-19 pandemic, it had to be postponed, but in its place, a virtual pre-ministerial forum took place online from March 15 – 26, 2022. The Third CSSI Ministerial Forum will now build upon the outcomes of the virtual pre-forum taking into consideration the effects of more frequent extreme weather events, such as Hurricanes Irma and Maria, and biological hazards such as COVID-19.

The Caribbean region is exposed to a number of natural hazards, technological as well as biological. The hazards compromise and hinder development plans and gains in educational systems throughout the Region. The systematic nature of risk has become even more evident due to the hazards with unprecedented cascading effects impacting all sectors and levels of Caribbean economies and societies.

Studies suggest that worldwide each year, 175 million children are likely to be affected by natural hazards, according to ‘Understanding the Impacts of Natural Disasters on Children,’ report, and children in the Caribbean are no exception. Children who have experienced a disaster are much more likely to have physical health problems, mental health symptoms, lower school attendance, and trouble learning.

Research conducted by the World Bank predicts that the economic cost of lost learning stemming from COVID-19 will result in USD $17 trillion loss in lifetime earnings among today’s generation of schoolchildren if corrective action is not urgently taken.

The First Caribbean Ministerial Safe School Forum was organized in April 2017 in Antigua and Barbuda, where the Caribbean Safe School Initiative (CSSI) was launched. This was the suggested framework to advance school safety in the Caribbean.

At the first forum, a Regional Road Map on School Safety, and the Antigua and Barbuda Declaration on School Safety, were established to guide the CSSI. During the first forum, the Antigua and Barbuda Declaration was signed by 12 Caribbean Ministries of Education. During the second forum, held in 2019 and hosted by the Ministry of Education and National Reconciliation of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the number of signatories raised to 18.

The CSSI is the Caribbean’s contribution to the Worldwide-Initiative on Safe Schools (WISS) and promotes the partnership for advancing safe school implementation.

MECYS is organizing the third forum in close collaboration with the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA), the Ministry of Education and National Reconciliation of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

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Youth Health Care Kicks Off its 5th Annual Breastfeeding Photo Contest

SINT MAARTEN (GREAT BAY, (DCOMM) – The Collective Prevention Services (CPS) Youth Health Care from the Ministry of Public Health, Social Development and Labour (Ministry VSA), this week kicks off its 5th Annual Breastfeeding Photo Contest.

The contest is in connection with World Breastfeeding Week 2022. The contest runs until August 4, 2022. The theme is “Step Up for Breastfeeding. Educate and Support.”

To enter the contest, you can send an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; you must include your name, telephone number, a description of the photo and why you chose to breastfeed; and one image of you and your baby breastfeeding.

The rules for participating in the contest are photographs must not be older than two years; pictures must be submitted by the mother or partner; watermarks are not acceptable; pictures submitted after August 4, 2022 will be disqualified; and pictures will be judged.

Breastfeeding is a natural process. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), being a parent is the most important job in the world, and it is important to give parents all the support they need to give their child the best start in life. #Breastfeeding is one of them.

The benefit of breastfeeding is that it delivers health, nutritional and emotional benefits to both children and mothers, and it also helps to foster a sustainable food system and cements the bond between mother and child.

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Lions Club presents Citizen of the Year Award to Bregje Boetekees Van’t Hof of WYCCF

SINT MAARTEN (PHILIPSBURG) - At a ceremony held at the White and Yellow Cross Care Foundation (WYCCF), President of the Sint Maarten Lions Club, Lion Linette A. Gibs MJF presented a surprised Mrs. Bregje Boetekees- Van’t Hof with the Citizen of the Year Award in recognition of her extraordinary, exemplary service to the community.

In making the Presentation, the outgoing President remarked: “This Award is highly justified taking into consideration your outstanding contributions to the general well-being of our island and to the White and Yellow Cross Care Foundation in particular regard to the care of our Seniors. You deserve to be recognized for the beautiful work that you do.”

Mrs. Bregje Boetekees-Van’t Hof, born in Curacao started to work with The White and Yellow Cross Care Foundation 24 years ago as a quality nurse. She was later promoted to the position of Department Manager and then appointed as Operations Manager of the St. Martin’s Home in 2008. In this capacity, together with her team, she was able to develop numerous care products and services in the areas of Elderly care, Psycho Geriatric daycare, Rehabilitation, Guided living at the Sister Basilia Center and as of late, a Hospice.

Just after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, Mrs. Boetekees -Van’t Hof took on a proactive role in the Management Team to tackle this unwelcome guest. Her primary responsibility was to educate the local population as much as possible and provide the necessary opportunities for persons who desired to be vaccinated. She became a very active and vocal participant in several discussion forums including accepting an invitation to host an information session for the members of the Sint Maarten Lions Club. In consultation and collaboration with Government, she was very instrumental in setting up a Covid vaccination unit within the White and Yellow Cross and has been actively involved during the past two years to ensure the success of this Project.

Well known for her boundless energy and her positivity, Mrs. Boetekees-Van’t Hof takes a keen interest in her team of support staff and maintains an “open door” policy in her work environment. She demonstrated her very strong sense of responsibility after hurricane Irma by taking it upon herself to accommodate and assist those staff members who had been confronted with uninhabitable housing situations. She followed up to ensure that they were assisted with the repair and reconstruction of their homes. Her staff describe her as “a loyal, sincere, empathetic, hardworking lady. She knows all the seniors at the White and Yellow Cross by name.”

In accepting the Award, an elated Mrs. Boetekees-Van’t Hof thanked the Sint Maarten Lions Club for the unexpected honor and continued: “I immensely enjoy what I do. I would not have chosen any other career than this one. I love this island and I love the people. I love what I do. I commend the Sint Maarten Lions Club for the great volunteer work you are doing and the essential role that Service Organizations like yours are playing in our community.”

SXM LIONS CLUB AWARD TO BREGJE

 

 

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‘Domestic Violence and Mediation’ project presented to Trust Fund Committee

SINT MAARTEN (PHILIPSBURG) - The “Domestic Violence and Mediation” project, a restorative justice initiative, launched by Stichting Justitiële Inrichtingen St. Maarten (SJIS) and the Prosecutor’s Office OM Sint Maarten, was one of the initiatives recently presented to the Sint Maarten Recovery, Reconstruction, and Resilience Trust Fund steering committee.

Project funder, Resources for Community Resilience R4CR, selected the restorative justice initiative for presentation to showcase its social impact on the community. The project is a collaboration of partners in the justice and social field with the goal of introducing restorative justice on St. Maarten. Restorative justice is an approach to conflicts and criminal offenses which focuses on repairing harm.

At the presentation were a delegation of 13 people, including R4CR representatives Jose Sommers, Steven Duzanson and Rolf Hunink, and the Trust Fund Steering Committee members: Marcel Gumbs (St. Maarten), Frans Weekers (Netherlands), and Lilia Burunciuc (Director Caribbean World Bank); Michelle Keane (World Bank Program Manager SXM Trust Fund), Claret Connor (NRPB Director), and representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Kingdom Relations of the Netherlands.

The project team was represented by Cynthia Filemon SJIS Probation & Family Guardianship, Sandra Withfield (Prosecutor's Office), Sanne Bartels (mediator) and Ramona Riley (project and communications coordinator) and supported by Patricia Richardson and Keturah Brown (Police Force). The team addressed the success of the R4CR Round 2 and explained the main topics of the ongoing project in R4CR Round 3:

  • Domestic Violence

o          Safe Home Training

             (behavioral intervention for domestic violence offenders and partners)

o          Gender-based violence training for professionals

  • Mediation

o          Mediation skills trainings for professionals, such as police, SJIS, Court of Guardianship,

           Ministry of VSA (Women's desk, Social Services) and Safe Haven

o          Pilot Mediation in Criminal Cases

           (30 criminal offenses of a various nature, such as domestic violence cases)

Richardson and Brown, mediation skills training participants, reflected on restorative justice and explained how the police benefit from what they have learned. They emphasized how mediation helps in reducing domestic violence cases and has equipped them with an extra tool to address conflicts.

Riley indicated that she is very happy to have participated in the training and has gained useful skills in supporting women that are impacted by domestic violence.

Filemon (SJIB) said thanks to the project, SJIB will be rebranded to better adjust to modern times and engagement with the community can be increased.

The delegation showed appreciation for the work and a keen interest in the project's impact on society and the sustainability of the project for the future.

For more information on the project and services offered, email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

The mediation skills training falls under the Domestic Violence and Mediation Project financed through R4CR, which was implemented by VNG International (the International Cooperation Agency of the Association of Netherlands Municipalities VNG) and funded by the St. Maarten Recovery and Resilience Trust Fund to improve the capacity of St. Maarten’s civil society organisations and to support reconstruction and resilience at the community level.

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Financial support for small businesses expands as OBNA joins ESP project

SINT MAARTEN (PHILIPSBURG) - The country’s small businesses have even more avenues for growth and support with the addition of the Ontwikkelingsbank van de Nederlandse Antillen (OBNA) as the newest financial institution to partner with the Sint Maarten Trust Fund’s Enterprise Support Project (ESP).

With a subsidiary agreement signed on May 30, 2022, OBNA joins Banco di Caribe, Qredits, and the Windward Islands Bank (WIB) as partners of the ESP.

Sustainable growth of Sint Maarten’s economy cannot happen without a vibrant and thriving small business sector. However, lack of access to financing has limited small business development in the local market, particularly for operations run by young entrepreneurs and women. Through collaboration with the partnering financial institutions, the ESP project provides grants and facilitates low-interest loans to micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises to stimulate the local economy’s recovery from the twin blows of Hurricane Irma and Hurricane Maria in 2017 and the recent COVID-19 pandemic.

As of June 1, 2022, the ESP has provided 134 local small businesses with financial support to tune of more than US $10.1 million. These businesses come from almost every sector of Sint Maarten’s economy, from hospitality and tourism to construction and fishing.

The focus on growth and development makes OBNA a perfect fit for the ESP. Established in 1981 as a development bank for the Netherlands Antilles, OBNA’s mission is to provide capital, knowledge, and networks to support sustainable socio-economic development and human empowerment in Sint Maarten, as well as the rest of the Dutch Caribbean.

OBNA is based in Curaçao and will be represented locally by the St. Maarten Investment Agency (SMIA). Owned by the Sint Maarten General Pension Fund (APS), SMIA strongly promotes sustainable economic growth and recovery. OBNA will have representatives stationed in Sint Maarten to help facilitate applications for the ESP project.

“We are very happy to have OBNA onboard as a financial partner of the ESP, as its mission closely aligns with the goals of the ESP. We both strive to assist small business owners, while growing our local economy through capital investments and knowledge sharing,” said National Recovery Program Bureau (NRPB) Director Claret Connor. “Through our targeted support and hand-in-hand collaboration, we not only give small businesses access to financial resources, but we help build a resilient and agile pool of entrepreneurs, who are better equipped to weather the potential financial storms ahead.”

“We are very pleased to work with the NRPB, as a partnering financial institution, to support the economic development of especially the small- and medium-sized enterprises in Sint Maarten. We, as OBNA Bank, are committed to this project and are more than willing to assist with the economic development of Sint Maarten. We sincerely hope that this relationship will go the distance,” said OBNA Managing Director Shurmel Elias.

“It has been a tedious process to have OBNA as part of the ESP program. And I am happy to see OBNA back on Sint Maarten. This inclusion gives small and medium-sized enterprises another resource by which to apply for funding,” said Finance Minister Ardwell Irion.

Entrepreneurs, as well as those who want to open their own businesses, are encouraged to visit www.nrpbsxm.org/esp for more information about the project, its eligibility requirements, and the process of applying. Persons may also call tel. 1-721-542-8886/7 or send an e-mail to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to speak with an ESP team member directly.

For more information about OBNA, persons may visit www.obna-bank.com.

For more information about SMIA, persons may visit www.stmaarteninvestmentagency.org.

ESP is a project of the Sint Maarten Trust Fund, which is financed by the Government of the Netherlands, managed by the World Bank, and implemented by the NRPB on behalf of the Government of Sint Maarten.

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SMGH Tower Crane lowered due to hurricane season

SINT MAARTEN (CAY HILL) - Due to the start of the hurricane season, the tower crane for the construction of the new St. Maarten General Hospital (SMGH) has been lowered and will be fully operational again within short.

As the hurricane season has officially started and the full height of the crane is needed at a later stage, the height has been reduced by 15 meters and the jib has been shortened. In the event of a tropical storm a mobile crane will be on standby, however if the storm turns into a hurricane, the tower crane needs to be dismantled.

These and other safety precautions are outlined in the hurricane plan for the construction site – a vital element for all construction projects in the hurricane belt.

St. Maarten Medical Center (SMMC) would like to remind the public that the crane is left in free rotation as a weathervane for safety reasons and in order to ensure its stability, it must follow the direction of the wind.

The crane is only allowed to carry loads over the SMGH construction site and will never carry loads over the Welgelegen Road, G. A. Arnell Boulevard (Link 1) or over the current hospital. The crane has been assembled and commissioned safely and is in compliance with the code of practice for the safe use of cranes and all necessary insurances are in place.

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USM Celebrates Newly Developed Courses

SINT MAARTEN (POND ISLAND) - On Tuesday, 8 June, the University of St Martin (USM) celebrated the completion of the first cohort of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the History and Cultural of St. Martin courses, with the distribution of certificates of completion for students participating in the Continuing Education Program. 

Following collaborative efforts between local experts, civil servants and USM faculty, and rigorous review by the university’s Academic Committee, the new study options were introduced into USM curriculum by USM Dean of Academic Affairs Dr. Rolinda Carter in January 2022. The courses were offered for the first time by the Division of General Liberal Arts, which is headed by Mrs. Juliana Shipley-Hodge. 

GIS Officer at VROMI and USM Instructor Johann Sidial expressed his pride in the accomplishments of his students, most of whom currently work with the Fire Department, the Police or other national safety agencies. “GIS is now used throughout the private and public sector, as well as in many other areas worldwide. This was a great opportunity for country Sint Maarten and I was happy with the collaboration between the agencies and the university,” Sidial stated. 

The History and Cultural Heritage of St. Martin (HIS 19) is another innovative course that was introduced in the Spring semester and was taught by UNESCO Secretary General for Sint Maarten Ms. Marcelia Henry. At the course completion celebration, the long-standing faculty member stressed the importance of enriching the curriculum at the university. 

“Because our island’s economy is largely based on tourism, knowing the history and culture is extremely beneficial for our people. This course is a prerequisite requirement for the Bachelor of Elementary program and the Associate of Arts in hospitality and tourism management program. However, it is also open to the public,” said Ms. Henry. 

As part of the ceremony, Dr. Carter, Mrs. Juliana Hodge Shipley and USM President Dr. Antonio Carmona Baez addressed the Continuing Education Program (CEP) graduates. Several of the students were happy to share their experiences of returning to the classroom after so long and being inspired to take other courses. Upon receiving a certificate of completion, one adult student expressed how much she missed studying. She is encouraged by her experience to continue taking other courses at USM in order to further develop her skills and knowledge in relevant areas. 

The two newly established courses provide a wonderful chance for businesses and enterprises to invest in their employees. Head of Marketing and Admission, Ms. Mitsha Shobhan Giterson urges business leaders to use USM as a springboard to advance their companies and services. We have a team of dedicated faculty members who are experts in their professions. "To contribute to the island's socio-economic development and sustainable living in the Caribbean, is one of our missions. Now is the time, especially considering the socio and economic development on the island”, said Giterson. 

Both courses will be offered in the 2022-2023 academic year, and together with Mr. Sidial, USM is currently developing a next level course for GIS.

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